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“A Transatlantic Think Tank of Toxicology (t4)”



The concept:

t4 was created with the following aims:

•       to analyze current tools and programs and model/forecast the likely outcome with regard to safety and economic burden (cost/benefit analyses)

•       to compare different approaches on an international scale (especially transatlantic) and support harmonization

•       to further the concept of an evidence-based toxicology (EBT) following the role model of evidence-based medicine

•       to develop and assess the conceptual needs to enable the change of approaches (predictive toxicology, integrated testing, systems toxicology, organotypic, and stem cell cultures)

•       to create and maintain information platforms (AltWeb, ALTEX, TestSmart workshops, etc.) to further the paradigm change in toxicology



The members:

Alan Goldberg, Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT), Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA;

Thomas Hartung, Doerenkamp-Zbinden Chair for Evidence-based Toxicology, CAAT, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA, and CAAT-Europe, University of Konstanz, Germany;

Marcel Leist, Doerenkamp-Zbinden Chair for in vitro Toxicology and Biomedicine and CAAT-Europe, University of Konstanz, Germany;

Bas Blaauboer, Doerenkamp-Zbinden Chair on Alternatives to Animal Testing in Toxicological Risk Assessment, IRAS, Utrecht University, The Netherlands


All reviews and reports may be downloaded from the ALTEX website (www.altex-edition.org) and AltWeb (www.altweb.jhsph.edu). Further in depth reviews of all toxicologically-relevant topics are encouraged. The reviews are commissioned by any t4 member. Interested authors are advised to contact a relevant t4 member directly with a review proposal. Publication is subject to a two-step peer review process. Reviews will be published and made available to the public free of charge. Authors are eligible for an honorarium.



t4 reports:


18.   Daneshian, M., Botana, L.M., Dechraoui Bottein, MY., (2013). A roadmap for hazard monitoring and risk assessment of marine biotoxins on the basis of chemical and biological test systems. ALTEX 30(4), 487–545.

17.   Hasiwa, N., Daneshian, M., Bruegger, P., et al. (2013). Evidence for the detection of non-endotoxin pyrogens by the whole blood monocyte activation test. ALTEX 30(2), 169–208

16.   Basketter, D.A., Clewell, H., Kimber, I., et al. (2012). A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing. ALTEX, 29:3-89.

15.   Ferrario, D and Rabbit, R. R. (2012). Analysis of the proposed EU Regulation concerning biocide products and its opportunities for alternative approaches and a toxicology for the 21st century. ALTEX 29, 157-172.

14.   Basketter, D. A., Clewell, H., Kimber, I., et al. (2012). A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing. ALTEX 29, 3-91.

13.   Rovida, C., Longo, F., and Rabbit, R. R. (2011). How are reproductive toxicity and developmental toxicity addressed in REACH dossiers? ALTEX 28, 273-294.

12.   Hartung, T., Blaauboer, B. J., Bosgra, S., et al. (2011). An expert consortium review of the EC-commissioned report “Alternative (Non-Animal) Methods for Cosmetics Testing: Current Status and Future Prospects – 2010”. ALTEX 28, 183-209.

11.   Boekelheide, K. and Andersen, M. E. (2010). A mechanistic redefinition of adverse effects – a key step in the toxicity testing paradigm shift. ALTEX 27, 243-252.

10.   Dietrich, D. R. (2010). Courage for simplification and imperfection in the 21st century assessment of “Endocrine disruption”. ALTEX 27, 264-278.

9.    Jaworska, J. and Hoffmann, S. (2010). Integrated Testing Strategy (ITS) – Opportunities to better use existing data and guide future testing in toxicology. ALTEX 27, 231-242.

8.    Hartung T. Vergleichende Analyse der überarbeiteten Richtlinie 2010/63/EU für den Schutz von Labortieren mit der abgelösten Richtlinie 86/609/EEC – ein t4 Bericht. ALTEXethik 2010, 2, 103.

7.    Hartung, T. (2010b). Comparative analysis of the revised Directive 2010/63/EU for the protection of laboratory animals with its predecessor 86/609/EEC – a t4 report. ALTEX 27, 285-303.

6.    Hartung, T. (2010a). Evidence-based toxicology – the toolbox of validation for the 21st century? ALTEX 27, 253-263.

5.    Kuegler, P. B., Zimmer, B., Waldmann, T., et al. (2010). Markers of murine embryonic and neural stem cells, neurons and astrocytes: reference points for developmental neurotoxicity testing. ALTEX 27, 17-42.

4.    Hartung T and Rovida C. Chemical regulators have overreached. Nature 2009, 460:1080-1081.

3.    Rovida C. and Hartung T. Neuevaluierung der erforderlichen Tierzahlen und Kosten der in vivo Tests zur Erfüllung der REACH Vorgaben für Chemikalien – ein Bericht des “transatlantic think tank for toxicology (t4)”. ALTEXethik 2009, 1:115.

2.    Rovida, C. and Hartung, T. (2009). Re-evaluation of animal numbers and costs for in vivo tests to accomplish REACH legislation requirements for chemicals - a report by the transatlantic think tank for toxicology (t4). ALTEX 26, 187-208.

1.    Leist, M., Bremer, S., Brundin, P., et al. (2008). The biological and ethical basis of the use of human embryonic stem cells for in vitro test systems or cell therapy. ALTEX 25, 163-190.




t4 workshop reports:


11.   Juberg, D.R., Borghoff S.J., Becker R.A., et al. (2014). Lessons learned, challenges, and opportunities: The U.S. Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. ALTEX 31(1), 63–78.

10.   Kleensang, A., Maertens, A., Rosenberg, M., et al. (2014). Pathways of Toxicity. ALTEX 31(1), 53–61.

9.   Ramirez, T., Daneshian, M., Hennicke Kamp H., et al. (2013). Metabolomics in toxicology and preclinical research. ALTEX 30(2), 209–225.

8.   Parks Saldutti L., Beyer B.K., Breslin W., et al. (2013). In vitro testicular toxicity models: Opportunities for advancement via biomedical engineering techniques. ALTEX 30(3), 353–377.

7.   Ramirez, T., Daneshian, M., Kamp, H., et al. (2013). Metabolomics in toxicology and preclinical research. ALTEX 30, 208-225.

6.   Blaauboer, B. J., Boekelheide, K., Clewell, H. J., et al. (2012). The use of biomarkers of toxicity for integrating in vitro hazard estimates into risk assessment for humans. ALTEX 29, 411-425.

5.   Saldutti, L.P., Beyer, B.K., Breslin, W., et al. In vitro Testicular Toxicity Models: Opportunities for Advancement via Biomedical Engineering Techniques (2011). Baltimore, Maryland, USA on October 26-27 , submitted.

4.   Zurlo, J. , Bayne, K. A., Brown, D. C., et al. (2011). Critical evaluation of the use of dogs in biomedical research and testing. ALTEX 28, 355-359.

3.   Silbergeld, E. K., Contreras, E. Q., Hartung, T., et al. (2011). Nanotoxicology: “The end of the beginning” – Signs on the roadmap to a strategy for assuring the safe application and use of nanomaterials – t4 workshop report. ALTEX 28, 236-241.

2.   Hasiwa, N., Bailey, J., Clausing, P., et al. (2011). Critical evaluation of the use of dogs in biomedical research and testing in Europe. ALTEX 28, 326-340.

1.   Daneshian, M., Akbarsha, A. M., Blaauboer, B., et al. (2011). A framework program for the teaching of alternative methods (replacement, reduction, refinement) to animal experimentation. ALTEX 28, 341-352.